The gravitational force between two objects is described mathematically by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which states that the force between two objects is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The equation for the gravitational force is **F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2**, where F is the force, G is the gravitational constant, m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects, and r is the distance between them.